Chocolate Happiness / Making chocolate more exciting

Speciality Fat

Hard Butters
for Chocolate

The physical properties of cocoa butter are important for the mouthfeel of pure chocolate. For many years, the Fuji Oil Group has carried out research and development on specialty fats that make what was previously impossible with cocoa butter possible to achieve.

Each specialty fat has its own characteristics and functions, including physical properties equivalent to cocoa butter, a wider variety of textures, maintenance of luster and shine, and a reduced change in physical properties due to temperature variations.

The composition of chocolate

In terms of its composition,
Chocolate consists of cacao solids, sugar, and milk powder dispersed in 30% to 40% oil.

Figure : The composition of chocolate

  • Sugar, milk solids, and cacao solids influence the flavor and color of chocolate.
  • Oils and fats (cocoa butter, plant-based oils and fats, milk fat, etc.) influence texture (hardness, melting point, mouthfeel) and workability.

Hard butters for chocolate

There are two types of hard butter for chocolate.

Cocoa butter (CB)
(CB: Cocoa butter)

Made with oils and fats extracted from cacao beans

Cocoa butter alternatives (CBA)
(CBA : Cocoa butter alternatives)

All oils and fats used in place of cocoa butter
(also known as hard butters)

There are different categories of oil and fat alternatives depending on their use and characteristics.


Characteristics of cocoa butter alternative oils and fats

Cocoa butter is an ingredient that people enjoy for its mouthfeel, but other plant-based oils and fats used in chocolate can provide a new experience.
For example, as shown in the figure on the right, there are oils and fats that are either harder or softer than cocoa butter. By combining these, it is possible to expand the variety of products through modifying their firmness at room temperature, their mouthfeel, and other such properties. A new customer experience can be designed by changing these properties.

SFC curve (SFC: solid fat content)


This curve shows the solid fat content (SFC) at a range of temperatures.
This is an indicator of the physical properties of solid fats (firmness, mouthfeel, and retention of shape).

Types of cocoa butter alternative oils and fats

CBE(Cocoa butter equivalent)/ CBI(Cocoa butter improver)

  • - Tempering required
  • - As workability and mouthfeel are similar to cocoa butter, similar properties can be produced.
  • - Some types can add functionality such as bloom resistance or a soft bite (CBI).

CBR(Cocoa butter replacer)

  • - Tempering not required
  • - Enables a wide range of modifications, such as the addition of heat resistance or softening of texture.
  • - It is often used to coat cookies, wafers, and other confectionery products that are distributed at room temperature.

CBS(Cocoa butter substitute)

  • - Tempering not required
  • - Characterized by a sharper melt in the mouth than cocoa butter that makes flavor release easier to sense.
  • - Because it solidifies at room temperature, it is often used in applications for bakeries and donuts.

Oils and fats for fillings

  • - Tempering not required
  • - This type is smooth, creamy and has a very pleasant melt-in-the-mouth texture.

Functions required of hard butters for chocolate

Depending on the shape of the chocolate and what it is to be combined with, the functionality will differ.

Plain chocolate, general

Plain chocolate, general

  • - Mouthfeel
  • - Clean separation from the mold
  • - Bloom resistance
  • - Hheat resistance
Shell chocolate, nut combinations

Shell chocolate, nut combinations

  • - Clean separation from the mold
  • - Crystallinity (revol)
  • - Heat resistance
  • - Oil and fat transfer resistance


  • - Adjustment of time to solidify
  • - Workability (viscosity)
  • - Heat resistance
  • - Bloom resistance
  • - Workability (viscosity)

Baked confectionery combination

  • - Workability (viscosity)
  • - heat resistance
  • - Oil and fat transfer resistance

Leveraging the knowledge we have built up over many years, the Fuji Oil Group proposes solutions with our oils, fats and compound products that meet our customers’ operating criteria and requirements.